Mahatma Gandhi

Early life

                     Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, later known as Mahatma Gandhi, was born on October 2, 1869, in the coastal town of Porbandar in Gujarat, India. He was born into a devout Hindu family, with his father, Karamchand Gandhi, working as a diwan (chief minister) for a local princely state. Gandhi’s mother, Putlibai, played a significant role in shaping his early life, instilling in him the values of honesty, simplicity, and religious devotion.



Gandhi’s upbringing was marked by a strong influence of Jainism, a religion that emphasized nonviolence and the pursuit of truth. These early religious and moral influences would later become foundational to his philosophy of nonviolent resistance.

At the age of 19, Gandhi left India to pursue higher education in law in London, a journey that marked his first significant exposure to Western culture. During his time in London, he encountered ideas and philosophies that broadened his horizons and sparked his interest in social justice. It was here that he began to study the works of writers like Henry David Thoreau, Leo Tolstoy, and John Ruskin, whose writings on civil disobedience, simplicity, and social reform would profoundly influence his thinking.

After completing his legal studies, Gandhi returned to India in 1891, but his early attempts at establishing a legal career in Bombay proved unsuccessful. It was during this period that he accepted a one-year contract to work in South Africa, which would prove to be a transformative experience. Gandhi’s time in South Africa exposed him to the harsh realities of racial discrimination, and it was there that he first began to actively engage in social and political activism, setting the stage for his future role as a leader in India’s struggle for independence.

In these early years of his life, Mahatma Gandhi’s exposure to diverse cultures, religious teachings, and the injustices he witnessed in South Africa laid the foundation for his later commitment to nonviolence, social justice, and his tireless efforts to bring about change in India and beyond.

The birth of passive resistance

The birth of Mahatma Gandhi’s concept of passive resistance, which he famously termed “Satyagraha,” can be traced back to his experiences in South Africa during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Gandhi arrived in South Africa in 1893 to work as a lawyer, and it was during his time there that he encountered the deeply entrenched racism and discrimination faced by the Indian community.



Gandhi’s first significant engagement with passive resistance occurred in 1906 when the South African government introduced the Asiatic Registration Act, which required all Indians in the country to register and carry identification papers. This discriminatory law and the mistreatment of Indians spurred Gandhi to take a stand against such injustice. He organized a campaign of nonviolent protest against the Act, which marked the beginning of his Satyagraha movement.

One of the defining moments of this early passive resistance campaign was the Tolstoy Farm, an intentional community established by Gandhi in 1910, named after the Russian writer and philosopher Leo Tolstoy, whose ideas greatly influenced Gandhi. At the Tolstoy Farm, Gandhi and his followers practiced communal living, manual labor, and adherence to the principles of truth, nonviolence, and simplicity.

Gandhi’s experiments with passive resistance in South Africa laid the groundwork for his later activism in India. He returned to his homeland in 1915, bringing with him the principles of Satyagraha. These principles would become the driving force behind India’s struggle for independence, as Gandhi led numerous nonviolent campaigns against British colonial rule, including the famous Salt March of 1930.

The birth of Gandhi’s concept of passive resistance was not only a response to the injustices he witnessed but also a reflection of his deep moral convictions. It became a powerful tool for social and political change, not only in South Africa but also in India and inspired similar movements for civil rights and justice worldwide. Gandhi’s dedication to nonviolence and his belief in the power of truth and love as instruments of social transformation continue to influence and inspire movements for peace and justice to this day.

Leader of a movement


Mahatma Gandhi’s role as the leader of the Indian independence movement is a testament to his unwavering commitment to nonviolence and his ability to mobilize millions of people in the pursuit of freedom. Gandhi’s leadership during India’s struggle against British colonial rule transformed him into an iconic figure and earned him the title “Father of the Nation.”

Gandhi’s ascent to leadership in the Indian freedom movement began with his return to India from South Africa in 1915. His experiences with passive resistance and his unwavering belief in Satyagraha, the philosophy of nonviolent resistance, soon gained him a following. He advocated for unity among India’s diverse communities and launched campaigns of civil disobedience and peaceful protest to challenge British authority.

One of the most significant moments in Gandhi’s leadership was the Salt March of 1930, where he led thousands of Indians on a 240-mile journey to the Arabian Sea to produce their own salt, defying the British monopoly on salt production and sales. This symbolic act of defiance resonated with millions of Indians and further galvanized the independence movement.

Throughout his leadership, Gandhi’s methods of peaceful protest and civil disobedience became the guiding principles for the Indian National Congress and other independence groups. He promoted self-sufficiency and encouraged the spinning of khadi (homespun cotton) as a means to empower rural communities and reduce dependence on British goods.

Gandhi’s leadership wasn’t without challenges and sacrifices. He endured imprisonments, hunger strikes, and personal hardships, all while advocating for a free and united India. His dedication to nonviolence and his ability to rally the masses ultimately played a pivotal role in India gaining independence in 1947.

Mahatma Gandhi’s legacy as a leader is marked not only by India’s independence but also by his profound impact on civil rights movements worldwide. His commitment to truth, nonviolence, and social justice continues to inspire leaders and activists, making him a symbol of peaceful resistance and the enduring power of the human spirit.

A divided movement


While Mahatma Gandhi is often celebrated for his leadership in the Indian independence movement, it’s essential to recognize that the movement itself was not always unified. Within the broader struggle for freedom from British colonial rule, there were divisions and differing ideologies among Indian leaders and groups.

One significant division in the movement was the ideological clash between Gandhi and Subhas Chandra Bose. Bose, a charismatic and militant leader, believed in a more confrontational approach to achieving independence. He argued that nonviolent resistance, as championed by Gandhi, was not sufficient to challenge the British Empire effectively. This led to a split within the Indian National Congress, with Bose forming the Forward Bloc and advocating for a more aggressive stance, including seeking assistance from foreign powers.

Another division revolved around religious and communal tensions. As India’s independence movement gained momentum, communalism and religious divisions emerged as significant challenges. The partition of Bengal in 1905 and later the communal violence during the Khilafat Movement and the Direct Action Day in 1946 highlighted the deep-seated religious and communal tensions within the movement.

Furthermore, there were regional disparities and varying levels of support for Gandhi’s methods. Some regions and leaders were more aligned with his philosophy of nonviolence and civil disobedience, while others favored different strategies or priorities. These regional and ideological differences occasionally hindered the overall cohesion of the movement.

Despite these divisions and challenges, it’s crucial to acknowledge that Gandhi’s ability to maintain a degree of unity within the broader movement was a remarkable achievement. His leadership and principles of nonviolence, truth, and unity did provide a unifying force, even amidst differing ideologies and tensions. Ultimately, India’s independence in 1947 was a collective effort, with various leaders and groups contributing to the struggle in their own ways, reflecting the complexity of a divided yet determined movement.

Partition and death of Gandhi

The partition of India in 1947 and the tragic death of Mahatma Gandhi were two pivotal events that left an indelible mark on the history of the Indian subcontinent.



The partition of India, which accompanied the end of British colonial rule, was a deeply painful and traumatic episode. The decision to divide India into two separate nations, India and Pakistan, was primarily based on religious lines, with Pakistan intended as a homeland for Muslims. The partition led to one of the largest mass migrations in human history, with millions of Hindus, Muslims, and Sikhs forced to leave their homes and migrate to the newly formed countries. It resulted in widespread violence, communal riots, and a profound loss of life.

Amidst this chaos, Mahatma Gandhi remained committed to peace and communal harmony. He undertook a fast in Calcutta (now Kolkata) to protest the violence and to promote unity between Hindus and Muslims. His efforts to quell the communal tension and his calls for religious tolerance were emblematic of his unwavering dedication to nonviolence, even in the face of immense turmoil.

Tragically, on January 30, 1948, Mahatma Gandhi was assassinated by Nathuram Godse, a Hindu extremist who disagreed with Gandhi’s stance on religious harmony and his support for the payment of reparations to Pakistan. The assassination shocked the world and left India in mourning. Gandhi’s death was a profound loss, as he was not only the leader of the Indian independence movement but also a symbol of hope for a peaceful and united India.

The partition and Gandhi’s assassination serve as stark reminders of the complexities and challenges that accompanied the birth of independent India and Pakistan. While the partition led to the creation of two nations, it also left scars of communal violence and mistrust. Gandhi’s death was a tragic end to the life of a man who had dedicated himself to the principles of truth, nonviolence, and unity. Despite the turbulent times, his legacy continues to inspire efforts for peace, tolerance, and social justice in both India and the world at large.

Thank you for your valuable time and consideration…

@Puja Singh…

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