The Mahabharata is one of the most significant and revered ancient Indian epics, considered one of the longest poems ever written. It is a monumental work of literature and philosophy that has shaped the cultural and spiritual landscape of Hinduism. Composed in classical Sanskrit, the Mahabharata is attributed to the sage Vyasa and is traditionally dated to the ancient period of Indian history, around 3000 BCE to 1500 BCE.

The Mahabharata is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Ramayana. It is an epic narrative of the Kurukshetra War and the fates of the Kaurava and Pandava princes. The Mahabharata is attributed to the sage Vyasa and is composed of over 100,000 shlokas (metrical verses), making it one of the longest epic poems in the world.

Significance in Hindu Culture and Literature: 

              The Mahabharata holds a central place in Hindu culture, embodying profound philosophical and moral teachings. It is not merely an epic but a vast reservoir of wisdom encompassing various aspects of life, ethics, and spirituality. The Bhagavad Gita, a sacred text within the Mahabharata, is a conversation between Prince Arjuna and Lord Krishna, exploring profound concepts of duty, righteousness, and the nature of existence. The epic provides a comprehensive guide to leading a righteous life and understanding the intricacies of dharma (duty).

The Mahabharata is also a repository of diverse narratives, including myths, legends, and parables. It addresses complex moral dilemmas, human relationships, and the consequences of actions, making it a timeless source of moral and ethical guidance.

Key Characters:

Pandavas: The central protagonists, consisting of Yudhishthira, Bhima, Arjuna, Nakula, and Sahadeva, the Pandavas are the sons of King Pandu. The epic revolves around their struggles, triumphs, and challenges.
Kauravas: The cousins of the Pandavas, the Kauravas are led by the ambitious Duryodhana. The conflict between the Pandavas and Kauravas is a central theme, culminating in the great Kurukshetra War.
Lord Krishna: A key figure in the Mahabharata, Krishna serves as the charioteer and guide to Arjuna. His teachings in the Bhagavad Gita are a philosophical centerpiece of the epic.
Draupadi: The wife of the Pandavas, Draupadi is a central female character whose resilience and strength play a crucial role in the unfolding of the narrative.


Dharma (Righteous Duty): The Mahabharata explores the concept of dharma and the challenges individuals face in upholding righteousness in the face of moral dilemmas.
Karma (Action and Consequences): The epic emphasizes the importance of performing one’s duty and facing the consequences of actions, as illustrated in the principle of karma.
Family and Relationships: The intricate relationships within the Pandava and Kaurava families, along with their allies, highlight the complexities of familial bonds and the impact of choices on these relationships.
Power and Ambition: The struggle for power and the consequences of unchecked ambition are recurring themes, especially in the character of Duryodhana.

Origins of the Mahabharata:

                   The origins of the Mahabharata are deeply rooted in Indian mythology, and it is traditionally attributed to the sage Vyasa. According to Hindu tradition, Vyasa is not just the author but also a central character in the epic. Vyasa is said to have dictated the Mahabharata to Lord Ganesha, the elephant-headed deity, who wrote it down using his tusk. The epic is considered a smriti (remembered text) and is part of the Itihasa genre, along with the Ramayana.

The Mahabharata is often associated with the Dvapara Yuga, one of the four stages in the cycle of Yugas or cosmic ages in Hindu cosmology. It is said to have been composed between the 8th and 4th centuries BCE, but the dating is speculative, and the oral tradition likely predates the written form.

Historical Background: While the Mahabharata is primarily a work of mythology and epic literature, it is set against the backdrop of ancient India and reflects certain historical, social, and political elements of its time. The epic mentions various kingdoms, cities, and regions that existed during the Dvapara Yuga, providing insights into the socio-political landscape of ancient India.

The central event of the Mahabharata is the Kurukshetra War, a conflict between two factions of the Kuru dynastyโ€”the Pandavas and the Kauravas. Though the war is a central narrative, it is important to note that the Mahabharata is not a straightforward historical account but a complex literary work that weaves together mythology, moral teachings, and philosophical discourse.


Cultural and Societal Relevance: The Mahabharata holds immense cultural and societal significance in India and beyond. It serves as a repository of cultural, moral, and spiritual values, providing a guide for righteous living. The Bhagavad Gita, embedded within the Mahabharata, is a philosophical and spiritual discourse that has had a profound impact on Hindu thought.

The epic reflects the societal norms, customs, and ethical principles of its time. Concepts such as dharma (righteous duty), karma (action and its consequences), and moksha (liberation) are explored in the Mahabharata, contributing to the philosophical foundations of Hinduism.

Additionally, the characters in the Mahabharata have become archetypes representing various facets of human nature and morality. The struggles, dilemmas, and triumphs of characters like Arjuna, Yudhishthira, and Draupadi continue to resonate with audiences, offering timeless lessons on virtue, integrity, and the consequences of one’s actions.
The Mahabharata’s influence extends beyond literature to various art forms, including drama, dance, and visual arts. It has inspired countless retellings, adaptations, and interpretations across different cultures and periods.

The Mahabharata, with its rich tapestry of mythology and philosophy, has left an indelible mark on the cultural and intellectual heritage of India, shaping the moral and spiritual consciousness of generations. Its enduring relevance is evident in its continued study, celebration, and adaptation in contemporary times.

Overview of the Structure and Divisions: The Mahabharata is structured in the form of parvas (books) and is divided into 18 major sections, each known as a parva. These parvas are further subdivided into chapters, and the entire epic is composed of over 100,000 shlokas (verses). The structure of the Mahabharata can be summarized as follows:

1.Adi Parva (The Book of the Beginning): This initial section introduces the origins of the Kuru dynasty, the birth of the Kauravas and Pandavas, and their early lives. It also includes the story of the partial destruction and reconstruction of the world, known as the Samudra Manthan (churning of the ocean), and various other tales.

2.Sabha Parva (The Book of the Assembly): The Sabha Parva primarily focuses on the events surrounding the game of dice, where Yudhishthira, the eldest Pandava, loses his kingdom and the Pandavas are forced into exile.

3.Vana Parva (The Book of the Forest): This parva narrates the Pandavas’ exile to the forest, their encounters with sages and demons, and the divine teachings they receive during this period. It also includes the Nalopakhyana, the story of Nala and Damayanti.

3.Virata Parva (The Book of Virata): In this parva, the Pandavas spend the last year of their exile in the court of King Virata. The narrative includes the adventures of the disguised Pandavas and the subsequent revelation of their true identities.

4.Udyoga Parva (The Book of the Effort): The Udyoga Parva details the diplomatic efforts, negotiations, and preparations for the Kurukshetra War. It sets the stage for the great conflict that forms the climax of the epic.

5.Bhishma Parva (The Book of Bhishma): This parva focuses on the initial days of the Kurukshetra War and contains Bhagavad Gita, a conversation between Arjuna and Lord Krishna on the battlefield, exploring profound philosophical and ethical concepts.

5.Drona Parva (The Book of Drona): The Drona Parva continues the narrative of the Kurukshetra War, with a focus on the military strategies, heroism, and the tragic death of Dronacharya.

6.Karna Parva (The Book of Karna): This parva centers on Karna, one of the key warriors in the Mahabharata. It narrates his background, alliances, and his valiant but tragic role in the war.

7.Shalya Parva (The Book of Shalya): Shalya Parva details the events surrounding the death of Karna and the subsequent appointment of Shalya as the commander of the Kaurava army.

8.Sauptika Parva (The Book of the Sleeping Warriors): This parva describes the night-time activities during the war, including the massacre of sleeping warriors.

9.Stri Parva (The Book of the Women): Stri Parva focuses on the lamentations and mourning of the women after the war. It includes the moving lament of Gandhari, the mother of the Kauravas.

10.Shanti Parva (The Book of Peace): The Shanti Parva is one of the longest parvas and contains discourses on statecraft, ethics, and duties by Bhishma to Yudhishthira. It serves as a guide for righteous governance.

11.Anushasana Parva (The Book of Instructions): This parva consists of the teachings and instructions given by Bhishma to Yudhishthira on various aspects of dharma, morality, and righteous living.

12.Ashvamedhika Parva (The Book of the Horse Sacrifice): This parva narrates the Ashvamedha Yajna conducted by Yudhishthira as part of his rule after the war.

13.Ashramavasika Parva (The Book of the Hermitage): The Ashramavasika Parva describes the retirement of the Pandavas to the forest and their eventual renunciation of the world.

14.Mausala Parva (The Book of the Clubs): This parva details the destruction of the Yadavas and the death of Lord Krishna.

15.Mahaprasthanika Parva (The Book of the Great Journey): The Mahaprasthanika Parva narrates the journey of the Pandavas to the Himalayas and their ultimate ascent to heaven.

16.Svargarohanika Parva (The Book of the Ascension to Heaven): This final parva describes the Pandavas’ ascent to heaven and the end of the epic.


Organization of the Narrative: The Mahabharata employs various narrative techniques, including dialogues, discourses, and stories within stories. The epic seamlessly weaves together mythology, history, philosophy, and moral teachings. The Bhagavad Gita, embedded within the Mahabharata, stands out as a philosophical discourse that transcends the immediate context of the war.

The inclusion of diverse narratives, such as the tales of Nala and Damayanti, and the discourses on dharma and governance, adds depth and complexity to the overall narrative. The Mahabharata’s structure reflects its multifaceted nature, encompassing not only the grandeur of the Kurukshetra War but also profound philosophical and moral discussions.

The Mahabharata’s intricate structure and composition contribute to its status as a monumental epic, encompassing a wide range of themes and teachings that continue to resonate across cultures and generations.

1. Lord Krishna:

Role and Significance: Krishna is a central and multifaceted character in the Mahabharata. He serves as the charioteer and advisor to Arjuna during the Kurukshetra War, playing a crucial role in guiding the Pandavas to victory. Krishna is also the narrator of the Bhagavad Gita, a sacred dialogue that addresses profound philosophical and ethical questions.
Character Development: Krishna’s character undergoes a subtle transformation throughout the epic. While initially portrayed as a mischievous and playful youth, he gradually reveals his divine nature, presenting his cosmic form to Arjuna in the Bhagavad Gita. Krishna embodies the concept of the Supreme Being (Brahman) and imparts spiritual wisdom, emphasizing the importance of selfless action and devotion.

2. Arjuna:

Role and Significance: Arjuna is one of the Pandava princes and a key warrior in the Mahabharata. He is the central figure in the Bhagavad Gita, where he experiences a moral and existential crisis on the battlefield. Arjuna’s role extends beyond his prowess in archery to symbolize the human struggle with duty, morality, and the consequences of war.
Character Development: Arjuna undergoes significant character development, particularly in the Bhagavad Gita. Initially paralyzed by doubt and moral conflict, he evolves into a resolute warrior, guided by Krishna’s teachings. Arjuna’s journey reflects the broader theme of self-discovery and the realization of one’s dharma.

3. Bhishma:

Role and Significance: Bhishma, the granduncle of both the Pandavas and Kauravas, is a revered and powerful figure. He plays a crucial role in the events leading up to the war, serving as the commander-in-chief of the Kaurava army. Bhishma’s commitment to his oath of celibacy and loyalty to Hastinapura make him a complex character with conflicting loyalties.
Character Development: Bhishma’s character is marked by his unwavering adherence to duty and dharma. Despite being on the Kaurava side, he is respected by all for his virtues. His internal struggles, especially during the Kurukshetra War, showcase the complexities of morality in the face of conflicting duties. Bhishma’s death marks a turning point in the epic, symbolizing the end of an era.

4. Karna:

Role and Significance: Karna, the son of Kunti and the sun god Surya, is a tragic hero in the Mahabharata. Aligned with the Kauravas, Karna is a formidable warrior with a sense of loyalty and honor. His life is marked by challenges, including his low birth status and societal rejection.
Character Development: Karna’s character is defined by internal conflicts and moral dilemmas. Despite his allegiance to Duryodhana, Karna’s interactions with characters like Krishna reveal his innate goodness. Karna’s tragic fate, including his death at the hands of Arjuna, evokes sympathy and reflects the complex interplay of destiny and individual choices.

These characters, among others in the Mahabharata, contribute to the richness and depth of the epic. Their roles and development serve as vehicles for exploring profound philosophical, moral, and existential themes, making the Mahabharata a timeless and universal narrative.

Themes and Moral Lessons

Duty and Dharma:

Duty (dharma) is a fundamental theme in the Mahabharata. Characters grapple with their responsibilities and obligations, and the epic underscores the importance of adhering to one’s duty, whether as a ruler, warrior, or family member. The Bhagavad Gita, a pivotal part of the Mahabharata, extensively discusses the concept of svadharma or one’s own duty.
The Mahabharata teaches that individuals should fulfill their duties with dedication and righteousness, even in the face of adversity. The concept of dharma is dynamic and context-specific, emphasizing the need to discern the right course of action based on circumstances.

In contemporary society, the theme of duty and dharma remains pertinent. The Mahabharata encourages individuals to navigate ethical dilemmas, make principled decisions, and fulfill their responsibilities, contributing to the well-being of society.

Karma and Consequences:

The concept of karma, the law of cause and effect, is integral to the Mahabharata. Characters face the repercussions of their actions, emphasizing that deeds, whether virtuous or harmful, have consequences.

The Mahabharata teaches the importance of acting with awareness and integrity, understanding that one’s actions shape their destiny. It emphasizes the need to perform righteous deeds while remaining detached from the fruits of those actions. The theme of karma underscores personal responsibility and accountability, urging individuals to make ethical choices and recognize the impact of their actions on themselves and society.

Righteous Governance and Leadership:

The epic explores the principles of righteous governance and leadership. Characters like Yudhishthira and Bhishma provide insights into the qualities of an ideal ruler, highlighting the importance of justice, compassion, and welfare of the subjects.

The Mahabharata imparts lessons on ethical leadership, emphasizing that those in positions of power must prioritize the well-being of their people, uphold justice, and rule with wisdom and compassion.

The theme of righteous governance is timeless. It encourages contemporary leaders to adopt ethical practices, prioritize the common good, and govern with a sense of responsibility and fairness.

Compassion and Forgiveness:

Compassion and forgiveness are recurring themes in the Mahabharata. Characters like Draupadi and Yudhishthira demonstrate forgiveness even in the face of great personal injustice.

The epic teaches that forgiveness is a sign of strength and virtue. It encourages individuals to overcome resentment and cultivate compassion, understanding that forgiveness is essential for personal and societal well-being. In a world often marked by conflicts and grievances, the Mahabharata’s emphasis on forgiveness remains relevant. It advocates for the healing power of compassion and the transformative nature of forgiveness in fostering harmony and peace.

Transcendence and Liberation (Moksha):

The Mahabharata explores the quest for spiritual transcendence and liberation (moksha). Characters like Arjuna seek deeper understanding and purpose beyond worldly attachments.
The epic teaches that true fulfillment comes from transcending material desires and understanding the impermanence of the physical world. It encourages individuals to seek spiritual knowledge and liberation from the cycle of birth and death.

In a world often driven by material pursuits, the Mahabharata’s teachings on transcendence and spiritual liberation offer a perspective on the pursuit of lasting inner peace and fulfillment.

In contemporary society, the Mahabharata continues to serve as a source of timeless wisdom, providing guidance on ethical living, leadership, and the pursuit of a meaningful and purposeful life. The themes and moral lessons it presents remain relevant, offering insights into navigating the complexities of the human experience.

The Great Kurukshetra War

The Kurukshetra War, a pivotal episode in the Mahabharata, unfolded on the plains of Kurukshetra and involved the fierce conflict between the Pandavas and the Kauravas. Strategically organized formations such as the Chakra Vyuh and the Krauncha Vyuh showcased the tactical brilliance of the commanders, including Bhishma, Dronacharya, Karna, and Arjuna. Bhishma, initially leading the Kaurava army, was a formidable force, while Dronacharya, the revered teacher, commanded the Kaurava forces. Karna, a formidable warrior loyal to the Kauravas, played a crucial role in the battles.

The war witnessed divine intervention, with Lord Krishna serving as Arjuna’s charioteer and providing strategic counsel. Krishna’s celestial weapons, including the Sudarshana Chakra, contributed significantly to the Pandavas’ cause. Notable duels, marked by moral dilemmas, unfolded throughout the conflict. Arjuna’s internal struggle about fighting against his own relatives, as depicted in the Bhagavad Gita, is a central moral dilemma of the war.

Deceptive tactics and subterfuge were employed by both sides, highlighting the ethical complexities of warfare. Characters, including Arjuna and Bhima, resorted to disguises to achieve specific objectives. The use of potent celestial weapons, such as the Brahmastra and Narayanastra, raised moral questions about the consequences of deploying such destructive forces. The narrative also explored the fine line between strategic cunning and moral integrity.

The characters in the Mahabharata grappled with profound moral dilemmas, including conflicts between duty and emotion, loyalty to family, and the ethical implications of their actions. The aftermath of the war prompted reflection on the cost of victory, as the Pandavas, even in triumph, were confronted with the immense loss of life, including the death of revered elders and kin. Today, the Kurukshetra War remains a metaphorical battlefield, offering insights into the ethical complexities of decision-making, leadership, and the human condition. The examination of duty, loyalty, and consequences in the Mahabharata continues to resonate, providing timeless lessons for contemporary society.

Overview of the Bhagavad Gita within the Mahabharata:

The Bhagavad Gita, often referred to as the Gita, is a sacred Hindu scripture that forms part of the Indian epic, the Mahabharata. It is a conversation between Prince Arjuna and Lord Krishna, who serves as Arjuna’s charioteer. The discourse takes place on the battlefield of Kurukshetra, just before the commencement of the great war between the Pandavas and the Kauravas. Arjuna is morally conflicted about fighting against his own relatives, and Krishna imparts profound spiritual wisdom and guidance to address his dilemmas. The Bhagavad Gita consists of 18 chapters, with a total of 700 shlokas (verses).

Teachings and Philosophical Concepts:

Dharma and Duty (Svadharma): The Gita emphasizes the importance of adhering to one’s duty (dharma) without attachment to the results. It teaches that individuals must fulfill their responsibilities and obligations in alignment with their inherent nature and role in society.
Yoga and Self-Realization: The Gita introduces various paths of yoga, including Karma Yoga (the yoga of selfless action), Bhakti Yoga (the yoga of devotion), and Jnana Yoga (the yoga of knowledge). It highlights the transformative power of yoga in attaining self-realization and union with the divine.
Detachment and Equanimity: Krishna advises Arjuna to perform his duties with detachment, emphasizing the need to act without being attached to the fruits of actions. Equanimity in success and failure is promoted as a key aspect of spiritual growth.
Nature of the Self (Atman): The Gita expounds on the nature of the self (Atman) as eternal and beyond the physical body. It distinguishes between the physical self and the immortal soul, emphasizing the impermanence of the material world.
Devotion to the Supreme (Bhakti): The Gita encourages devotion to the Supreme Being, portraying Krishna as the ultimate reality. It emphasizes surrender to the divine as a means of transcending the cycle of birth and death.
Discipline and Self-Control: The Gita underscores the importance of discipline and self-control in the spiritual journey. It advises restraining the mind and senses to attain inner peace and focus.

Influence of the Bhagavad Gita on Hindu Philosophy:

The Bhagavad Gita has had a profound and enduring influence on Hindu philosophy, shaping the core tenets of various schools of thought. Some key impacts include:

Advaita Vedanta: The Gita’s teachings on the eternal nature of the self and the concept of oneness with the divine have influenced Advaita Vedanta, a non-dualistic school of Hindu philosophy. Scholars like Adi Shankaracharya have drawn upon Gita principles in their teachings.
Bhakti Movement: The emphasis on devotion and surrender in the Bhagavad Gita has significantly contributed to the Bhakti movement, a devotional trend within Hinduism. Bhakti saints, such as Meera and Tulsidas, found inspiration in the Gita’s teachings on love and devotion.
Karma Yoga: The concept of performing one’s duty selflessly, as outlined in the Gita, has influenced the philosophy of Karma Yoga. This philosophy advocates performing actions with a sense of duty and righteousness, detached from personal gain.
Jnana Yoga: The Gita’s teachings on knowledge and wisdom have informed the principles of Jnana Yoga, the path of knowledge. Philosophers like Swami Vivekananda have integrated Gita concepts into their interpretations of Jnana Yoga.
Modern Relevance: Beyond its historical and philosophical influence, the Bhagavad Gita remains a source of inspiration for millions worldwide. Its teachings on ethical living, spiritual growth, and the pursuit of higher truths continue to resonate in contemporary discussions on philosophy, psychology, and well-being.

The Bhagavad Gita stands as a timeless spiritual guide, offering profound insights into the nature of existence and the path to self-realization. Its influence on Hindu philosophy and its continued relevance in the contemporary world reflect the enduring wisdom encapsulated in this sacred scripture.


Influence on Art, Literature, and Performing Arts:

The Mahabharata has left an indelible mark on Indian culture, inspiring a vast array of artistic expressions across centuries. In literature, the epic has been a wellspring for poets, writers, and playwrights. Notable works like the Tamil classic “Silappatikaram” and the Kannada epic “Jaimini Bharata” draw inspiration from the Mahabharata. In visual arts, the epic has been a recurring theme in sculpture, painting, and murals, with iconic scenes and characters depicted in various forms. The performing arts, including classical dance and theater traditions like Kathakali, have incorporated episodes from the Mahabharata, enriching the cultural fabric of India.

Modern Retellings and Adaptations:The Mahabharata continues to captivate audiences through modern retellings and adaptations in various mediums. In literature, authors like C. Rajagopalachari, R.K. Narayan, and Devdutt Pattanaik have offered reinterpretations, making the epic accessible to contemporary readers. Filmmakers have taken on the monumental task of adapting the Mahabharata to the screen, with acclaimed renditions such as B.R. Chopra’s TV series “Mahabharat” and Peter Brook’s theatrical production “The Mahabharata.” The epic has also found its way into the realm of graphic novels, with adaptations like Amar Chitra Katha presenting the narrative in a visually engaging format.

Global Recognition and Reception:

The Mahabharata’s influence extends far beyond India, gaining global recognition for its universal themes and profound insights. Scholars and philosophers worldwide have explored its ethical, moral, and philosophical dimensions. The Bhagavad Gita, embedded within the Mahabharata, has been particularly influential, with thinkers like Aldous Huxley and J. Robert Oppenheimer reflecting  on its teachings. Western literature and art, from T.S. Eliot’s poetry to Peter Brook’s theatrical adaptation, showcase the international impact of the epic.

Cross-Cultural Influences:

The Mahabharata’s narratives have inspired works in diverse cultures. In Southeast Asia, the Indianized cultures of Indonesia, Thailand, Cambodia, and Laos feature adaptations of the Mahabharata in their traditional arts. The Javanese wayang kulit (shadow puppetry) often includes episodes from the Mahabharata. The Ramayana and the Mahabharata have also influenced literature and performing arts in countries like Japan and China.

Contemporary Relevance:

In the age of digital media, the Mahabharata has found new life through web series, animation, and interactive platforms. Authors, filmmakers, and artists continue to reinterpret and engage with the epic, exploring its timeless themes in modern contexts. The Mahabharata’s narratives on duty, morality, and the human condition resonate with contemporary audiences, contributing to its enduring significance.

The Mahabharata’s cultural impact is vast and diverse, shaping artistic expressions, literature, and performing arts across the globe. Its enduring relevance and adaptability showcase the epic’s ability to transcend time and cultural boundaries, making it a treasure trove of wisdom and inspiration for generations to come.

The Mahabharata, a monumental epic of ancient Indian literature, encompasses a rich tapestry of mythology, philosophy, and morality. Explored through its intricate structure, key characters, and the profound teachings of the Bhagavad Gita, the epic delves into timeless themes such as duty, karma, and the complexities of human nature. The Kurukshetra War, a central narrative, serves as a metaphorical battlefield reflecting the ethical dilemmas faced by individuals. Throughout its vast narrative, the Mahabharata underscores the importance of dharma, righteousness, and the pursuit of spiritual knowledge.

The Bhagavad Gita, a spiritual gem embedded within the Mahabharata, provides a philosophical guide that transcends its immediate context. Its teachings on duty, detachment, and devotion have profoundly influenced Hindu philosophy and continue to resonate globally. The Mahabharata’s impact extends beyond literature, permeating art, performing arts, and inspiring countless adaptations, both traditional and modern, across various mediums.

The enduring legacy of the Mahabharata lies in its ability to offer insights into the human condition, ethical living, and the pursuit of higher truths. Its influence on Hindu philosophy, as well as its adaptability to contemporary contexts, underscores its timeless relevance. As we navigate the complexities of the modern world, the Mahabharata stands as a source of wisdom, encouraging further exploration and study. Its narratives, characters, and teachings invite individuals to delve deeper into its profound layers, fostering a continued appreciation for this ancient epic and its invaluable contributions to human understanding.

Thank you for your time and consideration ๐Ÿ™…

@Puja Singh…

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